How a cytokine in your brain regulates your body weight?

According to figures, there are more than 1.9 billion overweight people, about one-third of whom are obese. Obesity hides the possible dangers of multiple diseases, so successful anti-obesity treatments are desperately needed.

It is well-known that interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pro-inflammatory molecule that’s part of the innate immune system. However, researchers in the University of Gothenburg in Sweden have discovered a link between IL-6 from the brain and obesity. Through experiments in mice and rats, they confirmed that IL-6 does influence the risk of obesity and where this effect happens in the mind.

Interestingly, the brain’s control and utilization of IL-6 could be different from different parts of the body. The investigators wanted to know what happens to the level of IL-6 in the brain after a diet that leads to obesity.

Throughout the experiment, the researchers fed rats and mice with high-calorie foods like fat and hot mix. All these rodents, like humans, opt to eat too much when they eat foods that are high-calorie.

Obese mouse with low IL-6 brain levels

They discovered that IL-6 was reduced in fat rats and mice, but only in a region of the brain called the parabrachial nucleus (lPBN).

To research whether the reduction in IL-6 is bad or good for the metabolic health of rodents, the group has very selectively reduced the degree of IL-6 in lPBN by viral inheritance. The result is that even for rodents with a healthy diet, their weight and fat increase.

Consequently, the researchers believed that a drop in lPBN IL6 levels in obesity may lead to metabolic dysfunction and weight reduction. Since body weight is the result of energy intake and energy expenditure, any dysfunctionality in either of the 2 branches of energy equilibrium leads to weight gain.

After additional study, the team discovered that IL-6 made by the parabrachial nucleus affects both branches, namely, it reduces food intake and increases energy expenditure, while the latter increases brown fat action, so the body’s energy is used to create heat or burn fat. Therefore, lowering the IL-6 amount in lPBN breaks the whole energy balance.

Early studies in the University of Gothenburg have demonstrated that serum IL-6 levels in obese and overweight men are elevated but mind IL-6 levels measured in cerebrospinal fluid have been reduced.

The researchers also found that the decrease in IL-6 connected with obesity has been just found in men. Female rats and mice have normal IL-6 levels. The study team is currently investigating why women are immune to obesity-related IL-6-driven dysfunction.

Recombinant human GM-CSF

Glycosilation is better in Pychia recmbinant GM-CSF and it will give less problems with Oedemia in treated patients.

For Dendritic cell research more oftern E. coli recombinant GM-CSF and IL-4 is used.

Use of Growth Factors and Other Cytokines for Treatment of Injuries During a Radiation Public Health Emergency.

Journal: Radiation research


Due to the threat of a radiological or nuclear incident that could impact citizens, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services tasked the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) with identifying and funding early- to mid-stage medical countermeasure (MCM) development to treat radiation-induced injuries. Given that the body’s natural response to radiation exposure includes production of growth factors and cytokines, and that the only drugs approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat acute radiation syndrome are growth factors targeting either the granulocyte (Neupogen® or Neulasta®) or granulocyte and macrophage (Leukine®) hematopoietic cell lineages, there is interest in understanding the role that these factors play in responding to and/or ameliorating radiation damage. Furthermore, in an environment where resources are scarce, such as what might be expected during a radiation public health emergency, availability of growth factor or other treatments may be limited. For these reasons, the NIAID partnered with the Radiation Injury Treatment Network (RITN), whose membership includes medical centers with expertise in the management of bone marrow failure, to explore the use of growth factors and other cytokines as MCMs to mitigate/treat radiation injuries. A workshop was convened that included government, industry and academic subject matter experts, with presentations covering the anticipated concept of operations during a mass casualty incident including triage and treatment, growth factors under development for a radiation indication, and how the practice of medicine can inform other potential approaches, as well as considerations for administration of these products to diverse civilian populations. This report reviews the information presented, and provides an overview of the discussions from a guided breakout session.
Andrea DiCarlo; Zulmarie Horta; Jennifer Aldrich; Ann Jakubowski; William Skinner; Cullen Case


Use of Growth Factors and Cytokines to Treat Injuries Resulting from a Radiation Public Health Emergency.

Journal: Radiation research

Mai/7/2019
In response to concerns over possible radiological or nuclear incidents, the Radiation and Nuclear Countermeasures Program within the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) was tasked by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to support development of medical countermeasures (MCM) to treat the acute and delayed injuries that can result from radiation exposure. To date, the only three drugs approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treatment of acute radiation syndrome are growth factors targeting granulocyte (Neupogen® or Neulasta®) or granulocyte and macrophage (Leukine®) hematopoietic cell lineages. Although these are currently stockpiled for deployment in response to a mass casualty scenario, these growth factors will likely be administered in a scarce-resources environment and availability may be limited. Therefore, there is growing interest in understanding the role that these growth factors play in mitigating radiation damage, to optimize their use and maximize the number of people who can be treated. For these reasons, the NIAID and the Radiation Injury Treatment Network organized a workshop to explore the use of growth factors and other cytokines as MCMs in the treatment of radiation-induced injuries. Subject matter experts from government, industry and academia gathered at this workshop to discuss the concept of operations, triage and treatment, administration to diverse civilian populations, growth factors under development for radiation indications, and how the practice of medicine can inform other potential approaches.


Zulmarie Horta; Cullen Case; Andrea DiCarlo